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Enzymes are macromolecules responsible for catalyzing, that is, coordinating the speed at which the chemical reactions of the organism occur, acting in a highly specific way without altering the processes and products formed. An example of an enzyme is alkaline phosphatase, which is responsible for removing phosphate groups from several molecules, including nucleotides and proteins. Due to its function it is present in different tissues of the body, being found in higher concentrations in the liver and bones.
The alkaline phosphatase present in the liver is found in cells of the bile duct, where it acts in the transport of bile to the intestine for the digestion of lipids. In bones, the enzyme is produced by cells called osteoblasts, which are responsible for the formation of new bone tissue and which continually remake their structure. Therefore, due to its important function, its quantification is used in screening routines, diagnosis and in the monitoring of liver and bone disorders.
The presence of the enzyme at high levels may be related to pathologies such as cholestasis, hepatitis, of the skeletal system such as Paget's disease, in hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, as well as in cases of fractures and malignant tumors. The physiological increase can occur in children and young people, as a result of the increase in osteoblastic activity in the accelerated bone growth. On the other hand, decreased levels are found in chronic malnutrition, hypophosphatemia and, occasionally, hypothyroidism and pernicious anemia.
Quantification of phosphatase can be performed by spectrophotometry using the method described by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). This method consists of the reaction catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase present in the biological material, which at alkaline pH hydrolyzes p-nitrophenylphosphate, releasing p-nitrophenol and phosphate. The concentration of the enzyme in the sample is determined from the rate of formation of p-nitrophenol measured at 405 nm.
Biotécnica has in its portfolio the kit Alkaline Phosphatase IFCC, a bi-reactive and ready-to-use product, which can be used to measure phosphatase in serum and plasma samples. It can be easily adapted to the main automated and semi-automated analyzers. The kit has the highest linearity on the market, with an operating range of 6.5 to 1600 U / L. In addition, its performance is robust against the main endogenous interferents, being specific for the detection of alkaline phosphatase even in the presence of 2000 mg / dL of triglycerides, 250 mg / dL of hemoglobin, 30 mg / dL of bilirubin and 100 mg / dL of ascorbic acid. Its calibration is done by Autocal H and quality control can be done by the Quantinorm and Quantialt controls.
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Biotechnics, at the service of life.
Maria Cecília Brangioni de Paula
Schumann G, Klauke R, Canalias F, Bossert-Reuther S, Franck PF, Gella FJ, Jorgensen PJ, Kang D, Lessinger JM, Panteghini M, Ceriotti F. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 ° C. Part 9: reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on Reference Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)). Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011 Sep; 49 (9): 1439-46. doi: 10.1515 / CCLM.2011.621. Epub 2011 Jun 24. PMID: 21702699.
Motta VT Clinical Biochemistry: Principles and Interpretations. In: Enzymes: Alkaline Phosphatase. Volume 9.
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